Sie sind hier : Startseite →  Magazine und Zeitschriften→  (31) RCA Magazin - Intro→  RCA Magazin 1962 (May)→  RCA News May 1962 - 06


Die ausgewählten Artikel stammen aus der RCA Firmen-Zeitung vom May 1962 - Die Einführung beginnt hier.


Das Folgende ist reine Werbung für einen großen RCA Kunden

Es wird natürlich als "Erfahrungsbericht" dargestellt, ist aber ganz deutlich versteckte Werbung für RCA Geräte bei einem potenten RCA Kunden, also Werbung für die beiden Beteiligten.



Employs 8 RCA Recorders, 2 Film Systems, TS-40 Switching and Effects to Offer Complete Recording, Playback, Mixing and Dubbing Services to Advertisers and Agencies, Broadcasters and Producers of Programs and Commercials
by ROBERT BYLOFF - Manager TV Tape Recording,- Reeves Sound Studios, New York City

The Reeves Sound Studios

Reeves Sound Studios located at 304 East 44th Street in New York City, one block from the "United Nations", has the most complete specialized television tape installation in the world.

Here are housed RCA color and monochrome tv tape recorders, mixing rooms, film and live camera chains, and audio facilities all directed toward the goal of providing the most professional and highest quality video tape transfer, copying, and mixing services available anywhere. As such the Reeves Studios act as a service organization to the entire television industry.

Sound Recording

"Reeves Sound Studios" was founded in 1933 by Hazard E. Reeves, a pioneer in sound recording. Mr. Reeves also founded Reeves-Ely Laboratories, Inc., which now represents a substantial part of the companies comprising Dynamics Corporation of America, Cinerama, Inc., Audio Devices, Inc. and Reeves Soundcraft Corp., a manufacturer of recording tape and discs.

  • Anmerkung : Reeves baute auch Tonstudio-Mischpulte, wie uns unser Zeitzeuge Heinz Schleusner aus Guatemala erzählte. Als nämlich MCI in Florida 1982 von SONY gekauft wurde, war er mit seiner Südamerika- Vertriebs-Firma auf REEVES Produkte ausgewichen. Bei der neuen SONY/MCI Tochter hatte nichts mehr richtig funktioniert.

Reeves Studios grew to be the largest independent sound studio in the world (wir haben immer noch 1962 !!). Its sound business consists mainly of sound recording and mixing for motion pictures. In this process the many recorded sound tracks for a picture which would include dialogue, music, and effects are threaded up on sound "dubbers" and run interlocked with the picture The sound mixer then controls the intensity and quality of each of the tracks through his mixing console and the mixed track is recorded.

TV Tape Recording

In 1959 Mr. Reeves and Mr. Chester L. Stewart, the operating head of the studio, thought it was time to introduce these same techniques used for so long in motion pictures to the video tape field.

They contracted with RCA for the largest single purchase of television tape equipment and associated apparatus up till that time. The plan was to produce finished master programs through the "mixing" of scenes edited onto several rolls of video tape and played and re-recorded simultaneously through a mixing console.

Thus, dissolves and effects transitions and super-impositions could be used between tapes. At that time the copying of video tape was only experimental and the precision servos and "electronic time correction" equipment, such as Pix-lock and A.T.C., necessary to satisfactorily dissolve between tapes was not yet available. However RCA demonstrated satisfactory tape copies and showed the work they were doing to permit mixing techniques to be employed, and the decision was made to go ahead.

Equipment Installation (installiertes Equipment)

The major equipment items are as follows:

  1. 8 - RCA TRT-1A television tape recorders
  2. 2 - Color racks for tape recorders
  3. 2 - TK-21 film chains
  4. 2 - TK-26 color film chains
  5. 2 - TF-35 35 mm projectors
  6. 2 - TP-6C 16mm projectors
  7. 1 - TP-7 slide projector
  8. 1 - TK-11 live camera chain
  9. 1 - TK-41 color live camera chain
  10. 3 - TS-40 switching systems
  11. 2 - GPL kinescope recorders
  12. 1 - RCA 16mm film recorder
  13. 1 - Filmline 16mm film processor
  14. 1 - Bell & Howell film printer
  15. 3 - Fairchild !!! audio tape recorders

In addition to these major items there are synchronizing generators, distribution amplifiers, and monitors. These equipments are arranged in 9 major areas. These areas are the main recording room, telecine, 2 mixing rooms, kinescope recording room, equipment room, printing room, sound transfer room, and laboratory.

Main Recording Room

The eight tape recorders, camera control console, and transmission racks are located in the main recording room. The tape machines were arranged in an in-line arrangement to make for best operating efficiency for mixing service.

Two of the machines are colorized, but the arrangement was made to permit colorizing of all the equipment at some later date. Special color racks were built to house the color processing chassis and the color monitor for each machine.

A TS-40 switcher was installed with push button panels at each machine and also at a central point in the camera control console set-up. The switcher may be used to select audio and video input signals to the recorders or to switch signals from the recorders to any remote point.

When a machine is being used to feed a picture to a studio, the operator may switch from a test pattern or black signal to the machine output after the machine has stabilized, thus during rewind operations the remote point is not troubled by tape noise and "Donald Duck" audio.

The transmission tracks contain the audio and video jack fields, monitoring facilities, test signal generators, colorplexers, distribution amplifiers, and remote control patching for tape machines and projectors. Any or all machines can be remotely controlled from either mixing room, any studio in the building or from the camera control console.

Master Control

The camera control console, which is also a master switching and control position consists of the camera control positions for the two black and white and the two color film chains as well as the camera controls for the live color and black and white cameras.

Two additional console housings contain remote sync generator changeover switches, remote control push buttons for tape and film, the master switcher controls associated with the tape machines. Also contained are: stabilizing amplifier remote controls, and an extensive monitoring switcher, which allows the operator to monitor all inputs to tape machines and the outputs of all picture sources in the plant.

Telecine Facilities

The telecine room contains two TP-15 multiplex arrangements each with a 16mm and 35mm projector, a slide projector and monochrome and color film chains. Each of the projectors are equipped with interlock selsyns to permit their interlocked operation with sound clubbers in the sound studios.

Mixing Rooms

Two identical mixing rooms are used for starting and stopping all equipment in the plant, and for monitoring and switching of picture and sound sources to make composite mixes of programs.

Each contains a TS-40 switcher with special effects and dissolve facility, an 18 input audio mixing console with equalization available in every channel, picture source monitors on all video inputs, preview and program monitors, a footage clock, and an audio tape recorder. The video console also has remote stabilizing amplifier controls and remote controls for operating tape machines and projectors.

Some special controls permit the viewing and hearing of programs with limited bandwidth' as would be seen and heard over an ordinary television receiver, master start buttons for simultaneously starting all equipment associated with the particular job, and footage clock resets.

The picture sources available to each mixing room are 8 tape machines, the 4 film chains, and the 2 live chains. The sound sources available are the same as the picture sources plus the outputs of 40 sound dubbers which use 16mm or 35mm sprocketed magnetic film or optical sound tracks. All of the equipment in the studio is so interlocked that it comes up to speed and down to a stop in positive synchronization so that complete frame-by-frame control of all sound and picture elements is maintained.

Kinescope Recording

This area contains the kinescope recorders, and a 1/4-inch Fairchild sound recorder. A specially built photometer is used to guarantee accurate exposure of the film. Sound is recorded on the 1/4 inch "pic-sync" audio recorder and later transferred to optical film in the studio's sound transfer room where proper audio monitoring is available to allow proper choice of equalization of the sound.

Equipment Room

The equipment room contains the sync generators, pulse distribution. TS-40
switchers, audio amplifiers, and power supplies. In addition it contains the maintenance shop.

Printing Room

The printing room contains a Bell and Howell printer for printing picture and sound kinescope negatives on the final print stock. This room as well as the kinescope recording room are humidified to the proper environmental conditions for best film handling. (Of course the entire plant is also air conditioned.)

Sound Transfer

This room contains all sorts of audio playback machines (1/4-inch tape, 35mm and 16mm magnetic and optical, and disc turntables) and an audio console and speaker to permit the playback of recordings, the proper equalization of them, and the transfer of that sound to optical sound tracks, either 16 or 35mm. For kinescope recordings, the sound is transferred to 16mm film.

The Laboratory

The laboratory was installed primarily to allow Reeves to have complete control over the process. Only by having complete control can consistently good results he achieved either in sound recording or kinescope recording. Delivery of product on schedule can be controlled also.

The laboratory contains a sound processing machine which will handle either 35 or 16mm sound track, a Filmline processor with both positive and negative tanks for handling either 16mm negative or print stock, a Hernfeld sensitometer, and a densitometer. These last two equipments are essential for controlling quality of the ultimate laboratory product.

Connections With Sound Studio

The building, which contains the video installation also contains five sound recording studios for sound recording and mixing. All sound studios have been equipped with video monitors and controls to allow the television tape machines and projectors on the video lloor to be controlled. Therefore sound recording or mixing jobs can be done utilizing the video equipment as picture sources.

Special Devices

In addition to some of the special devices mentioned above such as interlocks, footage counters, ganged remote control and special monitoring facilities, the installation includes some other unique facilities to do a better job. Some of these are shown on the following pages.

Telephone Company Connections

The New York Telephone Company, partly through the efforts of Reeves has established a switching center in New York. Customers, within New York City, can be interconnected through this switching center.

The customers include, besides Reeves, two of the three major networks, advertisers and advertising agencies, and other independent tape producers.

Reeves has installed twelve video circuits in the building. Through these circuits, video feeds in either direction can be established to the customers of the switching center or on only a few days notice to anywhere in the United States.

Services Offered


Tape Duplication

Through the use of eight machines, Reeves can offer a mass tape duplication service, where large numbers of copies of tapes can be made with a minimum of wear on the master tapes. The use of ATC Pix-lock and air bearing headwheels insures the finest quality tape duplicates available anywhere.


A playback service over telephone company lines to advertisers and agencies is available. This playback can be of tape or film or hit integrated program either in monochrome or color.


Independent studios with no tape equipment or with only a few machines can
have their recordings made by Reeves through telephone company facilities.


Film-to-tape transfers for use in integrating film with a basic tape program can be done in either color or monochrome. For such integration, the standards of the original tape program are analyzed and the transferred material made to these standards to permit smooth integration.

Transfers from tape to film, essential to the syndication market and to the commercial producer, are made using the tape machines, the kinescope recorder, the sound transfer room, the printing room, and the laboratory. Only double system recordings are made to insure that sound quality will be excellent.


The installation at Reeves Studios is one of the most complete, most professional and best quality mixing set-ups anywhere. Mixes between several video tapes, video tape and film or live, and between audio sources are clone using pre-planned techniques.

As much as possible the on-the-fly or live television techniques are avoided, and the need for take after take to come up with an accurate job is eliminated.

Quality of sound and picture transitions can be attended to, instead of sweating through the mechanics of performing the basic tasks. The combination of talents of television and motion picture people are utilized to produce a method of approach to each problem, which insures best final product.

Wherever possible pre-planning is substituted for on-air panic and the expense of long hours of equipment usage.


Reeves uses the RCA Television Tape Splicer.

  • Anmerkung : Das ist ein ganz frühes mechanisches Schnittgerät, um das 2" Video-Magnetband "Take für Take" aneinander zu "kleben". Der elektronische Schnitt war noch nicht verfügbar. Das Problem beim mechanischen Schnitt war der Versatz von Bild und Ton. Also die folgenden Sprüche von "excellent results" sind fürchterlicher Unsinn. Der mechanische Schnitt war eine anfänglich zwingende Notwendigkeit, aber am Ende eine Totgeburt. Wie haben 3 solcher "Splicer" im Museums-Fundus.

This device produces accurately made splices consistently, and excellent results are produced quickly. Many programs are cut to remove "Huffs," and to make the program come out to the proper length.

Editing skill, more than being a technical process, requires people who can work well with television producers, and who have a good sense of timing. Several of the staff have developed into excellent tape editors.

Quality Control

Service and quality are the major efforts at Reeves. Quality is stressed to the highest possible degree. This is implemented by having the finest equipment obtainable, the proper measuring tools for quality control, a system of control in all departments, and an attitude of the management and personnel to insist that no job, which does not measure up to standard leaves the premises. Some of the devices used to produce high quality results are as follows:

ATC Device

The "Automatic Time Correction" equipment recently produced by RCA is being used at Reeves in all playback services. These include kinescope recording, straight playbacks, and mixes.

Any geometry problems which exist in the original recordings are eliminated by the ATC. Coupled with Pix-lock, the pictures are brought in exact synchronism with local timing signals so that picture transitions from one tape to another can be performed perfectly.

ATC puts a new standard of performance on video tape. In many cases the device allows tapes to be played back at lower "tip penetration" (der einstellbare Anpressdruck des Bandes an das Kopfrad bei der Aufnahme - der aber den Kopf-Verschleiß deutlich erhöht hatte.) than at which they were made thus saving wear (Verschleiß) on tape and heads.


Reeves was the first to have Pix-lock which goes a major part of the way toward stabilizing playback of video tape. In addition. the Pix-lock unit also produces a much more stable recording than the older headwheel servos were capable of, and it handles playbacks of splices much better than the older units.

Tape Test Equipment

Careful maintenance of video tape equipment is necessary to obtain the best results. Such equipment as a test set to check demodulator limiting, signal-to-noise measuring equipment, and equipment for accurately measuring video track recordings have been built and are used in routine maintenance of the equipment.

Calibrated Demodulator De-emphasis

A special selector switch to give specific amounts of de-emphasis in the demodulator has been installed. Any degree of de-emphasis from 0 to 10 db is available.

Air-bearing Heads

The use of air-bearing headwheels produces much more stable recordings when combined with Pix-lock than the older ball-bearing types. By substituting a thin layer of air under pressure for standard ball bearings the motor shaft of the headwheel literally rides on a cushion of air. Many advantages accrue, chief being near perfect rotational concentricity.

Test Probes

Test probes have been installed on all machine oscilloscopes to make measurement of test points simple and as rapid and convenient as possible. This makes it unnecessary to get out and hook up special test leads each time a check must be made. It saves time and contributes to overall efficiency of operation.

Special Photometer

The production of high quality kinescope recordings from video tape requires the highest degree of quality control throughout the process. The first step is to produce consistent exposure. To accomplish this a special photometer, whose calibration accuracy can be checked by built-in facilities has been built. Consistent densities within .02 are readily obtained using this device.

Control Personnel

Besides equipment, methods and people are of extreme importance in obtaining quality results. In the important areas such as head evaluation, kinescope recordings and tape recordings quality control personnel are assigned to pass on each item. This produces two desirable results: (1) Personnel are acutely conscious at all times of quality, and (2) Customers are aware of the unusual and uniformly high quality results.

Systems and Records

To obtain long range consistency and to be able to check back, a system of records is very important. Tubes are marked with the date of installation, control cards showing parameters used and results obtained for each step of the process are used in kinescope recording, plots of densities of each job are made on a graph to show-any trends. Records of head life and wear are kept and graphs are plotted to estimate head life.

Routine Maintenance

A complete routine of even machine is made every three months. This routine is essential for producing quality tapes. Results prove the effectiveness of this system for preventive maintenance. Consistently over-average performance is attained.

  • Anmerkung : Bei dem von uns (nach 60 Jahren) zerlegten TR 22 Recorder waren die Luftfilter so dicht, daß dort bestimmt seit Jahren keine Wartung mehr gemacht wurde. Damit verschlissen die Magnet-Köpfe der Trommell natürlich viel schneller als geplant.


Tape Evaluation

Because video recording tape is far from perfect a system of tape evaluation is used, whereby every foot of tape used is recorded with sync and video set-up, then played back entirely. A drop out count is taken minute by minute, and any tape not meeting standards is rejected.

  • Anmerkung : Auch das Prüfen von benutzen 2" Bändern "kostet" Kopf-Lebensdauer, ist also nicht trivial, und damit eher teuer.


Audio Equalization

Every audio track which is recorded is properly equalized to assure best quality.
In addition to these procedures and equipment Reeves maintains a complete machine shop and an electrical construction shop to provide mechanical maintenance on equipment and to allow the quick design and construction of special equipment.

Special Sound Services

The present nature of most video tape programs is that of a single system recording where composite picture and sound exist on the tape. This sometimes produces problems when alteration of picture or sound tracks is wanted.

Through the use of the interlocked picture and sound equipment at Reeves, sound can simply be stripped from a tape, altered, and put back without any problems of synchronization, whatever.

  • Anmerkung : Hier wird "durch die Blume" der Umweg beschrieben, wie man den Sound vom Video-Tape auf ein Tonbandgerät auslagert und später wieder vom Tonbandgerät synchron auf das "gesplicte" Video-Band aufspielt, ein sehr umständliches Verfahren - jedoch anfänglich ohne Alternative.

In addition music scoring against video tape playbacks are made and subsequently mixed with other sound sources to produce final tracks. The matching of non-synchronous tracks to video tapes has often been done. Whenever sound problems exist, solutions can be found for them through the use of the studio facilities. In some cases special equipment has been designed and built overnight to solve problems.

Examples of Jobs Performed



A series of one hundred twenty-eight programs was recorded for the Midwest Program on Airborne Television Instruction. The tape evaluation standards of this group are the highest in the country. Not a single tape was rejected.


Many commercials (Werbespots) are played back to the larger advertising agencies for their evaluation. All the major advertising agencies use Reeves playbacks. Consistently satisfactory results have been obtained.


In a recent mix job for an electrical manufacturer, five tape playback machines, a live camera, and a film chain were used as picture sources. Sound came from the picture source machines and three sound dubbers. The job was done in three takes. All elements were edited in advance so that all equipment units were started simultaneously at the beginning of a take and so the mix was done almost automatically.

Sound Sync Jobs

In a recent case a video tape with wavering sound and a quarter inch tape, which would not stay in sync with the video tape was delivered to Reeves. A sprocketed copy of the quarter inch tape was made and a sprocketed copy of the unsatisfactory sound from the video tape was made. The good sound was then edited sentence by sentence to match the poor sound in length. The corrected good sound was then rerecorded back on the video tape, and a completely satisfactory program was obtained.

Kinescope Transfers

Most of the commercials made on tape by independent tape producers are transferred to film by Reeves. Additionally hundreds of syndicated programs have been transferred. The reputation of Reeves Sound Studios in kinescope recording is the best in the United States. This has been possible mainly through quality control techniques and because Reeves has its own laboratory.

Post Audio Syncing

Several times, a section of video tape with an unsatisfactory reading by a performer has been post-sound recorded by the actor and the new audio substituted for the old. This allowed the recording to be used without the expense of having to re-shoot the scene. In most cases sound editing was required of even the best take to establish close synchronization of all the words.

Editing TV Tape

An excellent example of this occured when the first astronaut was orbited by the United States. The pictures were recorded, a twenty five minute show edited, a composite sound track with announcer, location sound, and a few effects sounds was mixed and recorded on the video tape. Then the tape was sent on a 7 p.m. plane same day to London to be aired by the BBC.

Special Operational Methods

In engaging in such a specialty as this, there have been developed several special methods of accomplishing desirable results. These "tricks of the trade" have been developed because of the special nature of our business and can be classed generally as methods that take the guesswork (Vermutung) out of the business.

Reeves avoids almost entirely "on the fly" techniques. Even the syncing-up of tapes is done by measurement. It is possible, therefore, to accomplish very simply and quickly seemingly complex jobs. The best of motion picture and television techniques have been combined to produce a highly efficient operational procedure.

The use of the RCA tape recorders with their superior picture performance allows Reeves to bring quality and professionalism into the television tape field.


FIG. 1. Main Recording Room. This view shows tix oi the RCA television tape recorders and the camera control console.

FIG. 2. Chester L. Stewart. President oi Reeves Sound Studios.

FIG. 3. Sound Transfer Console. All sound tracks going to film are equalized through this console.

FIG. 4. The author of this article at one of the color RCA television tape recorders.
FIG. 5. Front entrance of Reeves Studios on East 44th Street in New York City.

FIG. 6. Reeves is equipped with two RCA color television*1 tape recorders. The other six RCA recorders handle monochrome only but may be converted to color at any time.

FIG. 7. Ken Foster threading 16mm TV film projector in Telecine room.

FIG. 8. Studio X -one of two mixing rooms showing input, preview and program monitors. The left side of the console is for video control, the right side for audio control. There are 9 video inputs, 18 audio channels. Dissolves and 150 RCA effects can be made here.
FIG. 9. The camera switching and central control position in the main recording room. From this position all equipments can be started and stopped, monitored and switched.

FIG. 10. Central control position of main console. Here all equipments can be put into the record mode, monitored and switched.

FIG. 11. Reeves kinescope recorder. Ken Jordan, kine operator. A second unit is being installed.

FIG. 12. Telecine room equipped with two TP-15 multiplexer nests with TK-21. TK-26 Film Cameras and TP-35. TP-16 TV Film Projector equipments.

FIG. 13. Sound dubber room, showing several of 40 sound playback machines. which use sprocketed magnetic or optical film. Richard Vorisek loading dubber.
FIG. 14. Reeves exercises complete quality con-trol oi film processing. Here is a section of the film developing laboratory.

FIG. 15A. A special lucite cover built over Ihe record buttons to prevent inadvertent operation of these controls and consequent accidental erasure.

FIG. 15. Control panel of RCA TV tape recorder, showing: (A) remote head selector switch for operation in Fix-lock mode; (B) a special 2-step phasing control; and (C) a switch to put the machine in back-to-back operation video-wise without energizing motor drive or record junctions.

FIG. 16. View of air bearing head- k wheel showing Ed Welsh adjusting head for no scalloping during playback, using a special tool built at Reeves.

FIG. 16A. A close-up of head adjustment tool. This is conveniently available in a holder a few inches from the head.

FIG. 17. Note (in upper circle) special brackets built at Reeves for supporting the RCA editing table. Each machine is equipped with these brackets. They facilitate moving the editor from one machine to another .... Note (in lower circle) special fixed mounting of the brake release switch.
FIG. 18. A small noose, permanently mounted on each machine, allows holding of the tape tension switch during rewind of tapes, leaving operator's hands free.

FIG. 19. A special scale on each editing table permits measurement of tapes for editing in fractional seconds and in frames. Also shows the offset between sound and picture.

FIG. 20. Type TK-11 monochrome live camera at Reeves Studios is used for simple shots or commentary recordings in conjunction with location or studio recordings.

FIG. 21. Signal processing amplifier and A.T.C. unit of one of the RCA television tape recorders at Reeves.

FIG. 22. Audio console (right) and video (left) of mixing studio Y which is equipped identically to Studio X, Charles Power, maintenance engineer, is shown at TS-40 Transistorized Switcher panel.

FIG. 23. Photograph of a tape playback taken from the recorder monitor with tip penetration mis*set. The picture exhibits excessive skewing.

FIG. 23A. The same monitor photograph as in Figure 23 after pro. cessing by the ATC unit All geometric errors have been removed.
FIG, 24, One of the demodulators of the tape machines showing "calibrated" de-emphasis switch,

FIG. 25. The servo racks of several RCA TV tape recorders showing the Pix-!ock units on each.

FIG. 26. A specialty constructed Reeves Photometer for accurately setting exposures on the kinescope recorder.

FIG. 27. A special rack of audio equipment is used for receiving line audio feeds, processing them, and making them ready for recording . . • Dick Kloss at Reeves intercom system which connects all operating positions and studios.

FIG. 28. The RCA special effects control panel in operation at Studio X. Note effects produced as shown on monitors.

FIG. 29. Color recordings of simple commentary can be made by using the TK-41 live color camera.

FIG. 31. An operator loads one of the TP-6 projectors in preparation for a mixing job.

FIG. 30. The control room of Studio B. the band stage, where many video tapes are scored. Jack Higgins at console.

- Werbung Dezent -
Zur Startseite - © 2006 / 2024 - Deutsches Fernsehmuseum Filzbaden - Copyright by Dipl.-Ing. Gert Redlich - DSGVO - Privatsphäre - Redaktions-Telefon - zum Flohmarkt
Bitte einfach nur lächeln: Diese Seiten sind garantiert RDE / IPW zertifiziert und für Leser von 5 bis 108 Jahren freigegeben - Tag und Nacht, und kostenlos natürlich.