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Die ausgewählten Artikel stammen aus der RCA Firmen-Zeitung vom May 1962 - Die Einführung beginnt hier.



For the second successive year - RCA's mobile color unit came, saw and conquered with its colorcast of the 1962 Fort Worth Stock Show and Parade.

Clear skies and warm weather provided a perfect setting to capture the parade. Crowds watching sets in downtown department stores had nothing but complime-its on the color tones which had a field day with the bright costumes and blazing parade banners.

Three cameras, two on a department store ledge and a third, mounted in a hydraulic lift, transmitted the hour-long procession. The "cherry-picker," however, proved to be one of the biggest show-stoppers and the most valuable visual facility in the colorcast. Its versatility of being able to swing out or rise 50 feet above the parade gave viewers some extraordinary anil colorful sights.

Act Two of the colorful performance was presented at a matinee of the Stock Show Rodeo.

For this live coverage a crew of nine with four cameras took strategic positions in Will Rogers Memorial Coliseum - the scene of the world's biggest rodeo.

"Although we were handicapped by not having TV lighting facilities," said WBAP's chief engineer Rupert Bogan, "color was reasonably good. Two of the cameras were equipped with the 24415 and 14416 image orthicons; the other two had the 4401 tubes - operating at light levels as low as 75 foot candles.
Thanks to RCA's mobile ambassador, WBAP-TV made a lot of new color fans and as one letter stated: "Your colorcast of the rodeo and parade were magnificent. They were worth the price of mv color set."
FIG. 1. TK-41 Color Camera views parade from department store marquee
FIG. 2. "Cherry-picker" hydraulic lift gave spectacular camera angles.


In June of 1939, KSTP purchased one of the first TV cameras in the U.S. and began experimenting with television. On April 27, 1948, commercial TV operation began from a location astride the Minneapolis-St. Paul line.

Success of the venture is attested by continued growth since that time, developing more business, new buildings, larger audiences. The latest improvements during 1961 make the station one of the nation's greatest and the first in the region with complete color television facilities.

Pioneering has become a steady diet for station KSTP, expressing the rugged individualism of its founder, Stanley E. Hubbard - who has fathered many "Firsts" since the early days of radio: First to establish a complete news bureau; first to create a special events department, equipped with mobile units; first to serve his home community with a full-time educational department.

This public spirited attitude, coupled with a vision for greatness, has won the loyalty of the twin-cities audience and the admiration of its businessmen.

Common Problem

Before the 1961 improvements, KSTP found itself in the same position as many other TV stations that have "grown like Topsy" since the pre-freeze days.

Office quarters were cramped, equipment areas were crowded, operations were hampered by old and inadequate procedures. These conditions were caused by increase in transmitter power, additions to the film facilities, need for more studios, and installation of a tape recorder - all signs of a booming business, but all contributing to the operating dilemma.

Modern television installations have eliminated the multi-room concept for technical operations, such as was common a decade ago. A significant saving in operational convenience and manpower requirements can be obtained by combining the switching, film, tape and transmitting facilities into a single area. From here all network shows and many local programs can be handled without needless duplication of effort.

Unique Approach

KSTP had been planning to enlarge office quarters, add additional studio facilities, while providing for color television. A new approach, suggested by Walt Yarnuin of RCA (after conferring with KSTP engineers and making a systems study) was to provide space for all technical facilities within the confines of one large area and on one floor level. This idea was adapted by Stanley E. Hubbard. The firm of Hammel and Green, Architects and Engineers, was chosen to develop a suitable design for the building and the remodeling.

New Building

The solution was resolved into an addition, housing the unique engineering center studio control areas, a new color studio, make-up and dressing rooms, prop storage, public lobby and entrance for studio visitors. This addition is a windowless building of steel structure and masonry walls. It adds 20,000 sq. ft. of area.

In the existing plant certain difficulties had been experienced due to "RF" in the area, so the entire engineering and control center is enclosed with steel.

The Floor and roof of these areas are of cellular steel suitable for use as wiring conduit areas. The masonry (gemauerten) walls are lined with an acoustical metal wall panelling for a continuous steel enclosure.

Housed in the engineering section are the control rooms for the two large studios (new and existing), announce booth, engineering repair and the electronic gear for operating the television station.

The new arrangement provides for central operation of all these functions: Live and film camera control, video and audio switching, film projection and TV Tape operation, transmitter monitoring. The engineering center is one large open space with controlled lighting suitable to the task taking place in that particular area of the room. With this arrangement, any failure in equipment can be most readily attended to.

Serves the Public

Stan Hubbard's philosophy of success is short but pointed, "If you properly serve the public interest, profits will take care of themselves." With this in mind, Mr. Hubbard built the first television station in the northwest and developed it into the veritable television city that it is today.

In addition, he has since acquired KOB AM-TV in Albuquerque and WGTO in
Cypress Gardens. "Public service", says Mr. Hubbard, "is a good reason for going into color."

"We decided to get color facilities in order to be part of the growth of this new industry, and because we want to give the public this wonderful service.

"Today, as in 1949, we are following the lead of General Sarnoff. We think it is the wisest course to follow.

"We believe that television is here to stay. It's the greatest medium. And color is part of that great medium."

Emphasis on News

In the old days, Stan Hubbard put out the news himself on his radio station. A one-time reporter, he had his own ideas, and developed a definite format.
"We make a business of news! It's not entertainment - so there's no music in the beginning.

"We have 41 people on our staff for news and photo reporting. Thirty-seven pieces of equipment are operating, including two planes, three TV mobile units and a 35 kw emergency lighting unit. Dispatchers listen to all the various communication frequencies - so our men get fast to places where things are happening.

"People have come to depend on us for news. We editorialize only on important issues - however, we report both sides of every issue. Our news is highest rated in the U.S. (Nielson, ARB, and Pulse)."

Economics of Color

"We consider color television a must", affirms Stan Hubbard, "in order to protect our investment. - Television has been a growth business with sales increases every year since its inception. Somewhere along the line, this is going to level off - but color TV will enable it to take off again. It will be like a new industry."

"Right now we're experiencing something like when television first started", adds Stan Hubbard, Jr. (Manager KSTP Radio). People are gathering in homes of color set owners to watch the programs. And the distributor does not have enough sets to take care of the demand." - "Color sets are now much simplified" - "We have a multi-niillion dollar investment in KSTP-TV. We plough back a lot into new buildings and now, into color facilities. We're taking part in the big push."

Color Programming

KSTP is now programming several local live color shows daily. On Sunday night, there is an hour long drama colorcast. Specials are put on in color whenever the occasion warrants.

Daily color programs include: "Treasure Chest" for the ladies, "T-N-Tatters" for the children and News shows for all ages. In addition, there is a weekly religious program in color "Quiz a Catholic."

Color film processing facilities have been added so that the station can present daily happenings of significance as they actually appear to the eye. Several color News showings are put on daily - as fast as color film clips are received and processed.

All of the foregoing is in addition to the massive NBC schedule of color programs. All of these are carried by KSTP. This means that viewers in the Twin Cities area have a chance of six to seven hours of color in their daily TV fare.

Color Brings Revenue

Surveys show that color shows attract more viewers and experience reveals that color commercials cost somewhat more to produce than monochrome. As a result KSTP makes an additional charge for color.

Station KSTP has very complete color facilities for producing TV shows and commercials, both in the studio and remote locations. Two studios are used for color and each has 2 TK-41 live color cameras.

A Color TV film system is equipped with TK-26 Color Film Camera, two TP-6 16mm Projectors and a TP-7 Slide Projector. In the tape area, there are three RCA color TV Tape Recorders, Type TRT-1B. Color programs and commercials can be put on live or via TV tape.

The photo news department is equipped for color operation. Motion picture cameras are loaded with high speed 16mm color film. Exposed film is rushed back to the station for fast processing. KSTP has its own complete color processing facilities so that color shots can be aired very soon after shooting.

These complete color facilities for live, tape, and film telecasts are probably among the finest of any station in the nation.

Four Studios

KSTP has four fully operative TV studios, three of which are equipped for rear screen projection and three are equipped for color TV productions.

Studio No. 1 (24 by 41 feet), equipped with two TK-11 Cameras, is frequently used for sports and for tailing of black and white programs.

Studio No. 2 (formerly the main studio) 51 by 60 feet, is equipped with two TK-11 Cameras and two TK-41 Color Cameras. Its concrete block walls from the 4-ft. height to the ceiling are covered with rock-wool padding. The ceiling is covered with acoustical tile. The concrete floor is extremely smooth as well as level. Approximately one-fourth of the wall area is covered by a cyclorama. There is space for many portable sets: News, Weather, Commercials. Directly outside this studio is a parking lot for live demonstrations of heavy equipment.

Studio No. 3, 40 by 60 feet, is the new main studio, especially designed for stage shows, audience participations, and large musicals. It has excellent facilities for color lighting and acoustics. It has a terrazzo floor, so super-smooth that live cameras can be dollied with no noticeable effect on a telephoto lens. Its provision for flying curtains and scenery, for professional stage presentations are unsurpassed.

Studio No. 4 (24 by 46 feet) is a floating-studio designed for special musical productions and also serves in an emergency for other shows and commercial presentations.

The first three studios are on ground level and will accommodate drive-in vehicles. All studios have client observation mezzanines. Available also is a large lawn patio for outdoor telecasting under studio conditions. Two 35-foot remote cruisers, equipped for monochrome and color furnish TV facilities away from studio location.

Studio Control Rooms

All studios may be operated from either of two production clusters. Each cluster consists of control room and associated announce booth. Each control room is identically equipped with audio control, TS-40 Transistorized TV Switcher, and Special Effects system. The switcher panels used in control rooms are identical with those in master control. This means that operations are simplified, easier to understand and there is less chance for error.

Announce Booths

Each announce booth is adjacent to the control room. Each booth contains a twin 8-inch monitor - one monitor for transmitter programs, the other a selectable preview monitor. There is a panel containing microphone on-off switch, headphone jacks, anil monitor selection. Another panel contains the house intercom system.

New Color Studio

The need for proper sound reproduction of audience shows, choral groups, dramatic productions and pipe organ could not be satisfied within the existing studios.

The new studio had to be designed "Live" acoustically suitable for these reproductions. It also had to accommodate closed circuit viewing for local branches of firms using a national hookup. In keeping with this flexibility of use, the studio was designed for theatrical impressions of live shows, using down curtaining and props. Furthermore, it was designed for color television.

The new studio is arranged for use as a typical TV studio, or the audience type. One-fourth of the area is used as a stage, under a 11 fly loft 29 feet high. All props and scenery can be flown if required for any particular show.

The side walls are of walnut panelling enabling their use as backdrops for commercials, announcements, etc., that may be part of stage productions. Mr. Hubbard engaged the acoustical consulting firm of Bolt, Beranek and Newman to assist in shaping the studio for directional use (audience shows) or omnidirectional such as the choral and musical groups.

Color monitors are recessed in the splayed side walls enabling the audience (or closed circuit viewers) to see within a maximum distance of 20 feet from the monitor.

Of special interest is a small snack bar located behind a siclewall panel that silently raises out of sight, opening the bar to the studio for use at sales meetings, conventions, or demonstrations.

Acts as Auditorium Studio

This new studio serves groups of 400 people, has the most modern stage facilities. A lighting balcony with follow-spots and dimmer facilities, plus scenery that can be set up for progressive action without breaks for background changes, provide a continuous program period that may be viewed on the color monitors built into the wall. The studio is completely equipped for color telecasts, has complete dressing room facilities, built-in kitchen with equipment for serving studio audiences.

Color Studio Lighting

The new color studio lighting has been designed by a Hollywood consultant. Thirteen 5kw Sky Pans form the basic overhead studio lighting. These are mounted on pantagraphs supported from a Century Mobilrail system. This arrangement permits movement in all directions as well as up and down.

The Sky Pans supply 200 kw of lighting - more than sufficient for the largest of color shows - lighting both the sets and the audiences. A total of 36 circuits are used. 12 of which are on dimmers.
The staging area is equipped with four motorized light rails and two motorized curtains. There also are hand-operated rails for Hying scenery and props.

Studio Air Conditioning

To maintain rigid acoustical requirements, sound attenuators were used in the duct systems and specially designed air diffusers were installed to control air noise level and to control high room air turbulence without velocities that would move sets, flys, curtains, or performer's hair and costumes.

As the air temperature rises in the fly loft portions of the studio, an exhaust fan is started to eliminate any excessive heat conditions. Normal use calls for 50% fresh air. Whenever the outside temperatures are below 44 F, it is possible to cool the studio without the use of chilled air. The offices and the new building achieve outstanding dust control by use of Precipilron electrostatic air filters.

Advantages of New Arrangement

There are many advantages to a one-room layout according to KSTP engineers:

"There is one set of monitors that all can see from any place in the room. If anything should go wrong, there are always several technicians to help. There are no specialists, many can do the same job, making our men more versatile.
It reduces the feeling of isolation, makes people realize one another's problems, contributing greatly to our reliability and overall efficiency."

New switching facilities improve operations and picture quality. As a station grows, demands upon its original equipment often make it necessary to provide auxiliary circuits in order to handle all the requirements placed on the system.

This results in long circuit paths, with signals passing through numerous distribution amplifiers, thereby contributing to picture degradation. Through installing of three identical Type TS-40 Transistorized Switching Systems, in two studio control rooms and master control, KSTP has taken steps to preserve picture quality for its viewing audience.

TV Tape and splicing

KSTP has a sizeable TV Tape operation. All of the local specials are put on tape in advance of show date. Both color and monochrome shows are taped.

These tapes are also used for closed circuit presentations at sales and business meeting. Furthermore, almost all of the local commercials are taped. As a result KSTP has installed three TRT-1B recorders. Since the emphasis is upon color all machines are equipped for color operation.

A great deal of editing and splicing is done. It's not unusual to run 20 splices (Klebestellen) in a half hour show. The Christmas color special, for example, included 50 splices. All of these are made with the regular RCA TV Tape splicer but with a KSTP design mounting bracket - for "sit-down" use.

KSTP has proved the efficiency of installing more than one machine, since with two one can run tape shows back-to-back. They can also insert commercials and other small pieces into programs without having to edit the main tape. It has been found very convenient as well as economical to use separate small reels for individual commercials and announcements rather than edit them in and out of show tapes.

Accomodations for Cables

To accommodate the myriad special power requirements in a modern radio and television station, it was necessary to carefully plan the structure to allocate spaces for a tremendous multiplicity of electric circuits.

At KSTP this was done by selecting hollow steel cell members for the floor structure under the engineering and control areas. These cells are fed from below with open cable racks suspended directly below the floor and running at right angles to it.

Practically every cell is provided with a grommeted opening above the cable racks into which cables are pulled as required. These cells carry power feeders, branch circuits, telephone cables, TV camera cables, intercommunication cables, control wires of all sorts and many other wires and cables for special equipment.

Above the cells there is a thick concrete floor, except in certain strategic areas under or adjacent to electronic racks, transmitters, control consoles, etc. where the steel floor is left exposed to form large raceways.

The floors of these raceways have 4-inch grommeted openings into each cell for pulling in and terminating all of the various cables described above. The cable racks, trenches and cells are all provided with a continuous copper grounding strap which is bonded to an underground grid and to the steel structure of the building.

This system provides the greatest possible flexibility and it is easy to relocate or add cables at any time; even the color camera cables can be pulled in place without removing the terminal plugs. Up to this time roughly only 30% of the cell and cable rack space has been used so that any likely future expansion is provided for.

Conditioning Technical Area

In main engineering, a point of special interest, is that perforated metal pan tile are used with approximately 35% of the tile having acoustical pads laid irregularly throughout the area to achieve both sound and air flow control.

It is possible to "spot cool" or "spot sound control" specific areas in this manner. It is flexible to changes, since the metal ceiling tile are easily removable, and high temperature differentials can be used without creating conditions outside the human comfort zone.

The transmitter equipment portion of the new engineering area is served by a system of duplex units, all controlled at the electronic panel. The main air supply is a low-pressure slow-speed fan supplying 9600 CFM of climate-controlled air directly to the space and to a supply plenum which feeds air to three amplifier and three transmitter high pressure fans.

A return air fan either feeds this air back into the system if heating is required, or it is exhausted to atmosphere as additional fresh air is called for, or it can be fed by a special switch into the main engineering fan system to provide a means of supplying heat during an emergency boiler plant shut-down.

Special air flow switches in the air supply trunks to the amplifiers and transmitters serve as actuators to flashing signal lights and an alarm horn at the electronic panel. Then engineering technicians can switch to one of the two emergency fan systems with a delav of only seconds.

Certain exterior zones have a floor radiant panel at the perimeter edge controlled by a specially mounted thermostat to sense the outer wall skin temperature.

Main public entrance outer walks have snow melting panels to keep walks clean and dry during the heavy Minnesota snowfalls.

Negative Ionization

KSTP is probably the world's finest installation generating negatively ionized air to hold down dust; with the expected results being a healthier climate condition for employees and less maintenance for equipment. A low incidence of infections due to dust repellance from the respiratory systems help promote health. A more sanitary climate condition results because surfaces repel dust particles.

Negative ionization eliminates most of the dust and foreign particles which are a constant problem in attempting to achieve high grade tape quality. It is reported that the spirits of announcers and general attitude of employees are improved significantly by use of negatively ionized air!

Film Facilities

Two complete film islands are installed at KSTP. One is completely monochrome while the other can be both color and monochrome. Each is equipped with two 16mm S.O.F. projectors and 2 by 2 slide projectors. These film islands are so arranged that they may be assigned to either of the two production clusters.

Included in support of film facilities are monochrome and color processing for stills and movies, comprehensive film library, and kinescope recording svstem. There is also a Film Makeup Department with complete equipment for editing syndicated shows and feature films. It is here that lilm commercials are inserted into film programs.

Local Microwave Link

A number of KSTP specials are put on tape via the remote cruiser which relays the program to the studio via a microwave link. This is a TVM-1B system designed to handle both color and monochrome.

The transmitter of this system is installed in a remote TV cruiser. The studio terminal features a remote controlled parabola installed at the 250-foot level of the KSTP tower. Direction and tilt of this antenna can be controlled from the TV engineering area.

Inter-State System

Station KSTP is the originating point for a 9-hop microwave system feeding NBC programs to stations KCMT in Alexandria, Miss., and WDAY in Fargo, N.D. This is a TVM-1B system capable of handling both color and monochrome.

Five hops, from Alexandria to Fargo, are reversible for exchange of programs between KCMT and WDAY. Fault reporting, for any of nine faults, is included in the 5-hop Alexandria-Fargo section. (Subcarrier on system operates fault reporting and reversing.) The system also features remote switching to an off-air pickup for another network at a point two hops from St. Paul-Minneapolis.

Photo-News Department

A staff of 18 nationally accredited motion picture news photographers, supported by writers, film editors, and photographic technicians make a total staff of 41 people, for handling KSTP's very extensive TV News Department.

It is completely equipped for producing 16mm color/monochrome, silent and sound films. Also, color/monochrome 2 by 2 slides and 1/4 by 4-inch rear projection slides.

The Photo Dept. has a high-speed continuous color processor, and monochrome reversal 16mm automatic processor. Also, darkroom laboratories for still reproductions. Facilities are available for either optical single or double system sound track recording - or pre-stripping magnetic sound recording.

The award-winning news staff of reporters and writers is supported by 90 assistant photographers and correspondents. Five photo news cars, an emergency mobile lighting unit, and two airplanes with staff pilots, are all tied together and in communication with HQ via 2-way radio.

To back up these facilities there are complete motion-picture and still picture morgues, and all the wire services.

Gathering News Story (Einsammeln von Neuigkeiten)

Following the example of its founder, this department makes a fetish of offering a comprehensive and unbiased view of the news in the surrounding communities. Like its owner-operator the two news directors have a quarter century's experience in the broadcast news business.

The Hubbards' philosophy is very evident in that news is treated not as entertainment but as business.

Efficiency is the keynote of the new organization. To get efficiency this complex operation requires many people and much equipment. Having procured both, KSTP is able to offer one of the finest news services in the nation.

Radio News Control

The Photo-News Department employs radio equipped vehicles. Each car is equipped with at least one 2-way radio for communication with the dispatcher. The cars also contain emergency frequency monitors and give on-the-spot air broadcasts.

A lighting truck is used for emergency power or lighting at any situation in which it can be used. Quite often, this truck is requested by local authorities to assist them on emergencies, manhunts etc. Mounted on the roof are two mercury vapor flood lights of 1500 watts each and one 2000 watt spotlight. The generator in the truck is a 35 kw unit, delivering 120-208 volts, 3-phase, 4-wire, 100-amps.

FIG. 57. Photographer Roger Anderson fitting zoom lens to cine camera with transistorized amplifier for recording sound on film.

Color and Monochrome Processing

A "Hills Filmatic reversal processing machine" is currently being operated at 75 fpm for monochrome. Recently installed is a "Hills Colormatic reversal processor". This operates at 25 fpm using a high-temperature, high-speed process developed by Ansco.

The air in the room is specially air conditioned, and includes electronic air cleaning. Both processors operate from a unique system of water in tube and drainage built into the floor. Chemical processing solutions are fed to the machines from overhead 25-gal, storage tanks by special plastic tubing. The tanks are fitted with floating lids and dust covers.

Control of processing quality is constantly being exercised. Equipment and procedures for chemical analyses are at hand and carefully followed. Densitometer readings are made regularly on monochrome and color film. A laboratory technician on the staff assures constant high quality of processed film.

KSTP Radio

Stanley Hubbard established one of the first commercial radio stations in the American system of broadcasting and has guided it to the place of national prominence that it holds today.

Following in the footsteps of his august father and pioneer, Stanley "Jr." is today manager of the radio operation, and of radio and TV news.

Reason for the continued growth is emphasis upon modern techniques and public service. It is for this reason that the old AM (Mittelwelle) control room is now being modernized. This is also why RCA Cartridge Tape machines are employed and why the AM 50kw RCA Ampliphase transmitter has been installed. These are latest and most efficient operating equipments for AM radio stations.

All commercials are recorded on tape cartridges to speed selection and to reduce errors. From 250 to 500 spots in one day are poured forth from the cartridge tape machines. In addition NBC programs recorded on these machines are frequently played at later dates. They are also used for pre-recording local shows.

The Ampliphase transmitter was chosen because of its reliability and quality of sound. It gives FM-like performance to an AM station. (Anmerkung : Was für ein Unsinn !!) Its stability insures that the station will stay on air with highest reliability.

  • Anmerkung : Hier fällt natürlich auf, daß die anderen in den RCA News beschriebenen Stationen bereits auf UKW (FM) senden und bald in Stereo, diese so hochgelobte Station sendet (noch) auf Mittelwelle.

Thus in all ways KSTP is endeavoring to fulfill its pledge to serve the public interest. Whether in radio or television the best and most modern of equipment and techniques are employed. This mark of the pioneering spirit is further evident in the switch to color, by KSTP-TV, making it the first station in its northwest area to offer the finest in television fare for its advertisers and to its audiences.


FIG. 1. (left) Mr. Stanley E. Hubbard, founder and owner of KSTP. one of broadcasting's foremost pioneers. He is president of KSTP and manager of the TV operation, (right) Mr. Stanley S. Hubbard, upcoming son of the pioneer, vice-president KSTP and manager of the radio operation.

FIG. 2. How the new KSTP building appeared to station visitors during the Christmas holidays 1961, shortly after completion of new facilities.

FIG. 3. In 1939 KSTP procured one of RCA's first commercial TV cameras and began the expert-ments that led to establishing the Northwest's first TV station in 1948.

FIG. 4. "Emcee Jim Hutton" is handling audience participating sequence of live color show "Treasure Chest". It's very popular with the ladies, attracting a daily audience of 100 to 150. (This view shows auditorium section of new color studio.)

FIG. 5. T-N-Tatters is a 40-minute circus show for children put on live in color. It runs daily from 4:35 to 5:15 p.m. An audience of 50 to 100 happy youngsters is usually present. Daryl Laub is T-N-Tattcrs, the clown.
FIG. 6. Treasure Chest is a 40-minute audience participating adult ladies show put on live in color. It runs daily from 12:20 to 1 p.m. Prizes are given to contestants. {This view shows stage section of new color studio.)
rellecls Stan Hubbard Sr.v "they're neither difficult to adjust nor expensive. The picture is graphic - very colorful.

FIG. 7. Color specials are frequently put on, especially during the holiday season. Six specials in color were programmed during the 1961 Christmas season. This view is typical of the colorful sequences seen by KSTP audiences.

FIG. 8. SeKing up of typical color commercial in KSTP new color studio.

FIG. 9. One of two master production control rooms. These are equipped with TS-40 Transistorized Switching and RCA Special Effects Systems. They can handle both color and monochrome programs.

FIG. 10. KSTP's TV directors: (1. to r.) Kenn Barry, director of television, Jim Nelson. Bob Sears. Bill Garin. Earl Niemi. Dick Larson. Ed Kindt, and Jerome Wasley.

FIG. 11. Note that operator in production control room No, 3 can see into studio No. 3 (left) as well as into studio No. 2 (right).

FiG. 12. Stage section of Studio 3. Overhead are motor driven lighting battens. Also rails for flying of scenery and props.

FIG. 13. Audience end of Studio 3. Catwalk at rear can be used to support color TV camera as well as follow-spots and dimmers.

FIG. 14. (left) Three meters at top are load current indicators for the 3 phases on the 24 non-dim 50-amp circuits. Group of 12 meters and outboard panel are metering and control for 12 dimmer 50-amp circuits. All dim and non-dim circuits appear at top part of patch panel, while the 85 load circuits appear in lower part.

FIG. 15. (left, below) Pantagraph mounted 5kw Sky Pan. Joe Reznick is inserting a color gelatin filter.

FIG. 16. Note splayed paneling used in new color Studio 3 for acoustical as well as artistic effect. Also visible is built in color receiver, employed as studio monitor.

FIG. 17. Mobile rail system is employed for supporting and positioning of lighting fixtures. Note air-conditioning diffusers. Also part of ceiling is plastered for "live" acoustical effects,

FIG. 18. Engineering brain trust of KSTP. Left to right: George Merrill {holding instruction book), Kess Pool (holding audio amplifier), Dick Elliott (reel of TV tape), John Reinke (transmitting tube). Hugh Mulhollam (image orthicon), Fred Debeaubien (holding catalog), and director of engineering operations, Fred Street (extreme right).
FIG. 19. Overall view master control engineering area. (Made with special 140-degree angle camera. The distortion is very apparent but it gives an interesting panoramic view oi the new control area.) Starting Irom the left: New audio control which is a portion of control room No. 3 cluster, air-conditioning panel, master control console row, and (foreground) camera control console row. In rear, transmitters, monitors; and on the right (not seen) projection and video tape equipment. The man seated to the left at the front console is Bill Jarvi, transmitter engineer; on the right, Don Kline, projectionist; and at the foreground console. Herb Krajewski, video operator.

FIG. 20. (below) Floor plan of central engineering area. Note 15 positions at master control console, and 18 at camera control. (There are no camera control positions in the individual control rooms.) Note that TV Transmitters (main and standby) are in this area, also two film islands, and three TV tape recorders. In addition, all rack and power equipment is located here. This arrangement makes for maximum efficiency.

FIG. 21. In foreground is color TV film island. (There is also a monochrome film island.) Three TV Tape recorders are shown in U-shape buckground. All three are color recorders.
FIG. 22. Type TT-25CL 25-kw main TV transmitter. Fred Street, director of operations, and Larry Larson, director of research and development. At right TT-2AL 2-ltw auxiliary TV transmitter. Coax switches permit either transmitter to be connected to one of two antenna systems.

FIG. 23. TV master control. At left in console 1 are two RCA cartridge tape recorder units, one BA-7 recording amplifier. {These along with other equipments are tied into the automation system.) Console 2 houses the antenna and transmitter switching panel ior motor driven coaxial switches, Conelrad monitor and weather radar controls.

Console 3 contains remote control panel ior the transmitters. Console 4 houses TM-6 transmit* ter monitor. Console S contains remote control for stabilizing amplifiers and sync generator switch
ing. Console 6 houses the automation readout and control. Clint Barstad, transmitter technician. is reading information into the automation.

Console 7 houses preview monitor and master video switcher. Console 8 houses RCA designed master control audio switching. Console 9 provides remote controls for two film islands and three TV tape recorders. Console 10 and 11 house the controls and waveform monitors for two TK-21 monochrome film cameras. Robert Fries, projectionist, is at these controls.

FIG. 24. Camera control position in new engineering area. At left are controls for all 13 black and white cameras - note power supplies beneath. Don Nordstrom is at the controls. To his right are controls for four studio color cameras and the 3 V color film camera. Hugh Mulhollam, studio working supervisor, is at the controls.

Into these console sections have been built several transistorized headphone stations to permit the video man to occupy several positions as necessary.

The trenches underneath the console are tied into the cellular floor, and no trenching extends beyond the limits of the console lineup. Therefore, people rolling chairs or pushing scopes never get them caught in trench plates.

FIG. 25. View of the master control operating position showing master control audio. Bob Winters is at the controls. To his right are multiplexer and TV tape control panels. The audio control system was custom designed by RCA to meet KSTP requirements.

FIG. 26. RCA Cartridge Tape installations at master control. These units are tied into the automation system. Announcements are pre. recorded and started automatically for use with film and slide video. Ray Aula is loading a tape cartridge into the system.
FIG. 27. Ray Aula, transmitter technician, entering information in memory of automation equipment. The system accommodates 12 events. These can be previewed at any time prior to air time. Each event is triggered by a master clock. (Note telephone speaker-microphone system atop console.)

FIG. 28. Rack equipment for automation system is designed for convenient installation and ease of maintenance. Three double sided units are mounted on rollers, making every component and connection conveniently available for testing and servicing. John Reinke, technician, demonstrates sliding action.

FIG. 29. Don Benedict pulling wire into trenching system. Trenches are under transmitter, consoles. and all racks. All run north and south and are 6 inches deep and 18 inches wide. Since area is designed with cellular metal flooring, cross access trenches are not necessary. Four-inch diameter holes (foreground) lead from trenches into cellular flooring and wires can be pulled down through these holes up into the selected trench.

FIG. 30. At base of this rack note metal cellular flooring thru which cables enter trenches.

FIG. 31. A view of the basket construction used beneath the cellular floor in the engineering area to transport cables to other portions of the building.

FIG. 32. John Reinke using air connection at end bell of rack section. These air outlets provide air from 2 to 100 pounds through a regulator to simplify cleaning of the rack equipment. . . , Also shown is part oi relay bank of production intercom system. This provides 20 stations which can be operated in two ways: Individual selection, unit to unit; or public address selection. Up to 19 stations can be tied together and operated by a master switch.

FIG. 33. Clint Barstad and John Reinke. KSTP technicians, at the first row of racks in TV master control. These racks are designated by No. 1 on the far left and ending up with No. 16 on the far right, with No. 16 containing the power distribu tion. Along the base of all racks power outlets are provided for scopes, voltmeters, tube checkers, etc.

FIG. 34. TS-40 Switching Arrangement. On far left is master control TS-40. Next is TS-40 switcher and TG 25 special effects generator for control room 3. Right rack is TS-40 for control room 2. Note air exhaust ducts at top of racks.

FIG. 35. George Merrill, transmitter supervisor, at air conditioning control panel. Three separate air conditioning systems are controlled from this panel. The top section controls transmitter and transmitter room. Colored lighs indicate which blowers are operating and give warning of over temperatures. Temperatures of all critical transmitter points may be read on this control board.

FIG. 36. Power racks showing 15 WP-16 solid-state power supplies for color cameras, terminal equipment, switchers, etc. The low heat dissipation of these power supplies permits loading up a rack with power without worrying about overheating.

FIG. 37. Backs of racks in power supply section. Note on left of each rack a large terminal block. These provide power distribution to the various services. These blocks are sectionalized and individual sections can be taken out or replaced at a moment's notice.
FIG. 38. Top of power supply racks. All A-C wiring for racks is carried overhead in 4-inch square ducts and is then carried downward inside the rack in wire mold to insure complete separation of power, video. and audio wiring.

FIG. 39. Stan Hubbard, owner of KSTP (left) and Walt Varnum of RCA. Mr. Varnum made a system study of requirements in conjunction with KSTP engineering staff that led to the design of the new unique KSTP studio building and master control equipment area.

FIG. 40. Don Kline, projectionist, at Film Island No. 1 which includes two TP-6 16mm projectors and a TP-7 slide projector. Also TK-26 Color Film Camera. TP-15 Multiplexer, and TK-21 B 4 W Film Camera.

FIG. 41. Dick Elliott at "sit down" splicer position designed by KSTP stall. This leatures FIG. 42. KSTP has three color TV Tape Recorders-
a special mounting bracket. It makes splicing easier. all type TRT-1B. Note exhaust ducts at top.

FIG. 43. Tower-mounted microwave receiver and parabola at KSTP for link with remote cruiser. Note remote positioning unit for aligning parabola.

FIG. 44. Transmitter technician, Clint Barstad. adjusting elevation control of parabola on 250-foot level of tower. Control at right is used for azimuth.
FIG. 45. Transmitting antenna lor 9-hop WDAY micro-Wave installation. Inspecting installation is S. D. Ras mussen. chief engineer, WDAY.

FIG. 46. Passive reflector is mounted at 250-foot level of KSTP tower.

FIG. 47. Nine hop KCMT-WDAY system feeds NBC programs from KSTP as far as Fargo, N. D.

FIG. 48. KSTP photo-news staff of 33 photographers, writers, editors, technicians.

FIG. 49. John MacDougall, newscaster, at head of makeup table. From top to bottom: editor Bob Johnson, director Dick Larson, floor director Ed Hammeril.

FIG. 50. Editing facilities in photo department. Film editors and news writers work side-by-side to cut news films.

FIG. 51. Fifteen writer-reporter-producers are responsible for programming some fourteen hours of regular news shows each week- -plus many specials.

FIG. 53. Assistant TV news director/ Lowell Ludford. clears the wire. In FIG. 52. Jack Wadlund checks latest wire copy addition to AP and UPI radio wires, KSTP subscribes to AP's "A" and "B" before writing a story for the news show. wire services, plus the weather wire and photo-facsimile.

FIG. 54. Bud Meier, news director and Bill McGovern, director of KSTP news operations, plan "in depth" coverage for which KSTP is famous.

FIG. 55. KSTP employs a fleet of eight vehicles in its photo-news operation.

FIG. 56. Radio dispatcher, Jerry Weirbrauch, monitors emergency frequencies and contacts KSTP vehicles. Double pane window keep out noise.
FIG. 58. Inspecting monochrome and color film processing facilities: Skip Nelson (right), photo news director, and Leon Lacabonne color control specialist.

FIG. 59. Special devices added by KSTP to color processor so that film connot jump off roller; also note micro-switch to indicate low film supply.

FIG. 60. Note floor drain system beneath film processor.
Under his able guidance the station is a living symbol of the free enterprise system of broadcasting.

FIG. 61. Auricon Pro fitted with Mitchell 1200 ft. magazine is mounted in front of TM-6 master monitor for kinescoping.

FIG. 62. (top) One of earliest radio remotes by KSTP, made from one of the first mobile units in the nation.

FIG. 63. (center) Cartridge tape units are most recent addition, finding extremely heavy use. Howard Heffley, technician, loading cartridge.

FIG. 64. (bottom) AM radio control room. This is in process of being modernized.

FIG. 66. Note neat and compact arrangement of power and con trol equipment for 50-kw ampliphase transmitter.

FIG. 65. AM Transmitter surpervisor, Howard Carlson, at RCA 50-kw Ampliphase transmitter. At left is 1-kw auxiliary transmitter.

FIG. 67. KSTP-AM transmitter building. In background is emergency an tenna. 165 feet high. (Bat wings at top are for FM.)

FIG. 68. KSTP beams power westward at night, is non-directional in daytime. First tower is 340 feet high and is top loaded. Second tower is also 340 feet high while third is 296 feet high,

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