Sie sind hier : Startseite →  Magazine und Zeitschriften→  (31) RCA Magazin - Intro→  RCA Magazin 1961 (Dez.)→  RCA News Dec. 1961 - 09


Die ausgewählten Artikel stammen aus der RCA Firmen-Zeitung vom Dezember 1961 - Die Einführung beginnt hier.



by ROSS THYER, Chief Engineer QTQ-9

Less than one mile from the summit of Brisbane's beautiful Mt. Coot-tha, an imposing green building and slender steel tower blend gently into a landscape of carefully planned gardens and lush subtropical forest.

QTQ, Channel 9, each week broadcasts seventy-six hours of entertainment. Comprehensive tape, telecine and live programme facilities bring quality presentation of the best recorded material together with an active participation in local live variety to the 880.000 population of metropolitan Brisbane (das war 1960).

On November 28. 1958 the Australian Postmaster General granted to Queensland Television Limited a licence to operate a commercial station in the Brisbane area.

Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide und Sydney senden gemeinsam

Under Chairman of Directors, Douglas Wadley, a General Manager, James W. McKay, and Chief Engineer, Ross Thyer, were appointed in January, 1959.

The station commenced commercial operation in August, 1959, and since this time has been closely associated with ATN, Channel 7, in Sydney, GTV-9 in Melbourne and NWS-9 in Adelaide, in the production and distribution of Australian variety, drama and sporting programmes.

Plans are now well advanced for an intercity cable and microwave link system between the state capitals Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane and the national capital, Canberra. This cable has already been laid from Sydney as far north as Maitland and to the south almost as far as Canberra. The cable also extends northward from Melbourne to Bendigo.

Three-hundred and fifteen miles of cable have been laid since January, 1960. The inter-city co-ax is being installed on behalf of the Australian Postmaster General's Department and will be used by both Government-owned and commercial television interests. The television relay facility between Sydney, Canberra and Melbourne is scheduled for completion by June, 1963.

Studio and Transmitter Building

At Television Centre both studios and transmitter are accommodated on a three-and-a-half acre site. The difficult excavation for the building foundations commenced late January and was completed only two weeks later.

Erection of steelwork commenced on March 20, and a completed technical and service building was handed over to the QTQ engineering department early in July, and the station was transmitting test patterns before the end of the month.

Building construction was carried out by Messrs. Stuart Bros. Pty. Ltd., of Sydney and Brisbane and the attractive building was designed by architects, Havens & Kirkwood, in association with Guy Crick. Lewis and Williams of Brisbane and Sydney.

The building is a steel frame structure with six-inch reinforced concrete flooring. Interior infill partitions are constructed from four-and-a-half inch brick plastered on both sides. Exposed exterior walls up to ground level are eleven-inch cavity brick.

The major exterior portion of the building is clad in pressed zinc anneal sheets. The completed structure with a floor area of 37,500 square feet has five levels including a roof-top canteen and a small sub-basement.

The architects utilised the natural fall of the site to accommodate a four-storied structure with a minimum of basement excavation work. The building was designed around an integrated single level technical area below a functional ground floor production area.

The concept of QTQ is a classical example of the building block principle as shown in the floor plans, Figs. 4 and 5. This technique allowed progressive completion of Stage 1, technical and service area; Stage 2, Studio B, and Stage 3, administration block.

Studio B

The 50 by 70-foot Studio B has splendid access to an 8300 square foot service area. A central corridor runs the full length of the administration block between the foyer and service building, giving access at ground level to make-up dressing rooms and Studio B.

The waiting audience is accommodated under the awning, between the porte cochere of the south wall and the main studio. The special audience door precludes the possibility of interference with traffic from other areas.

The 42-foot high Studio B shown in Fig. 6 has 6-inch thick reinforced concrete floor overlayed by 1-inch thick magnesite. The outer walls of pressed zinc anneal sheeting are insulated initially by 3 inches of slagwool.

A 1-foot air space divides the outer wall from 1-inch fibrous plaster sheeting with set joints pinned on to timber framing. The inner wall comprising a 1-inch slagwool blanket encased in wire netting has resulted in the desired accoustically dead character of the studio. Artificial reverberation can be introduced by a magnetic disc delay device inserted in series with selected microphone inputs. A high degree of sound isolation is provided, although seldom put to test in the low ambient noise conditions found on the mountain.

Studio B is equipped with three TK-31 cameras mounted on one TD-10 and two TD-3A pedestals, see Fig. 7.
The 20 by 170-foot blue cyclorama curtain, woven in one piece, runs on a special track around two walls of the studio to cover the lighting battens' winches and the motor driven scenery winches. A catwalk aids high level lighting and provides access to overhead running gear and the cyclorama track.

A 104-circuit lighting control console uses a rotary patching system in conjunction with 15 5-kw saturable reactor dimmers. Twelve sub-master dimmers and 3 master groups provide maximum flexibility in the control of 24 2-kw spot lights, 50 high-efficiency 750-W spot lights, 46 1-kw scoops and a 5-kw spot. Two pattern projectors and miscellaneous ground row and supplementary lighting make for an adequately illuminated studio.
Local staging requirements call for a base light illumination of 100 foot candles with key lighting as high as 140 foot candles. The close-spaced target image orthi-cons in the cameras give low noise pictures with an average lens opening of f8.

Studio B Control Room

The programme director sits at a 3 by 11 foot main control desk, 8-feet-6-inches above the studio floor and 10 feet from a double glazed window, see Fig. 8. This control room window is 4-feet-6-inches high and 23 feet long so that the director's eye subtends a vertical angle of 30 degrees from the high level monitors and the closest action on the studio floor.

To the right of the TS-40 switcher control panel shown in Fig. 9, is the comprehensive technical director's talkback and technical monitoring facilities. The 5-bus TS-40 switcher has 8 video inputs and is used in conjunction with a TA-25 special effects system to provide considerable flexibility in control of programme inputs.

The audio control position (Fig. 10) is situated to the left of the director in a 9 by 15 foot totally enclosed booth. Here a BC-6B dual audio consolette is supplemented by a 4 channel auxiliary mixer.

On the BC-6B, 9 input fader functions together with key switching, provide facilities for 10 microphone inputs, 2 telecine, 2 turntables, 1 audio tape, 1 tv tape, audio, and remote inputs. The normal complement of microphones for this studio includes 4-BK-S, 4 77-nX. 3 BK-lA and 8 BK-6B.

Central Technical Area

The QTQ central technical area is located in the basement below the studio service building. All basement technical areas have direct access to a corridor which runs the full length of the building between the garage and the basement-level staff entrance, at the eastern end of the building.

Studio C

This compact presentation studio is intended for news and weather telecasts together with simple interview programmes and small scale commercials. The studio, see Fig. 11, is equipped with fixed news and weather sets, fixed lighting battens and a simple lighting control system.

Two walls of the studio can be covered by use of the multiple curtain track supporting a variety of special drapes designed to give the best results with a remotely operated TK-21 vidicon camera.

A large double glazed window with a special acoustic damper box provides adequate sound isolation and an excellent view into the master control room. The studio is equipped with a TK-21 vidicon camera mounted on a heavy duty remote pan and tilt unit and fitted with a remotely controlled "Berthiot" zoom lens.

The 5 remote functions of the Studio C camera (pan, tilt, zoom, iris and focus) are operated from the master control technician's console. The general illumination level of 250 foot candles has been found to produce excellent results from the vidicon camera with a normal lens opening of f4.


In the spacious telecine room, two TK-21 cameras are mounted on TP-11B multiplexers and have three optical inputs. Each multiplexer is used in conjunction with two 16mm projectors and one TP-7A dual drum slide projector. Both film and slide projectors can be remotely operated A delegate switch mounted on the vidicon console will transfer this facility between Studio B and master control. A television tape recorder is also housed in this room.

Master Control

Master control has been conveniently located in the northwest corner of the building for easy access to the engineering workshop and with direct access through double doors into the remote vehicle garage.

During the initial planning, the decision was made to site the transmitter together with all video and audio terminal equipment within one area.

The transmitters and associated equipment are installed to the left of the master control desk. This desk and operator's console face a window into Studio C (see Fig. 12). The master control desk normally accommodates a master control operator, the presentation director and an audio operator.

During news segments the presentalion director is assisted by a member of the news department. A TM-6 monitor is permanently connected across the visfon demodulator and is mounted in a 13-inch console housing.

To the right of this, in a 22-inch console housing, a 14-inch monitor is switchable between the output of a TS-2 transmitter monitor switcher and the output of the TK-21 Studio C vidicon camera.

The technical preview facility is provided by a TS-11 mixer displayed on another 14-inch monitor. To the right of the master control operator, a TS-40 switcher control panel is mounted. A BC-6B consolette is mounted to the right of the TS-40, and the audio operator's control desk is extended to accommodate two turntables.

The Transmitters (die eigentlichen "Sender")

The main transmitter is a Type TT-11AH. Used with a 16 stack dipole panel antenna, see Fig. 13, the combination gives an effective radiated power of 100 kw. A 2-kw TT-2BH is used to provide a standby facility.

Changeover between the main and standby transmitters is accomplished by means of remotely operated coaxial switches. The high tension circuits of the transmitter not in use are held open by the external interlocks. Using this method and running the alternative transmitter with heaters on, the changeover function is executed in less than one second.

The separate VSB filter and notch diplexer are mounted vertically on the north wall of the master control room behind the transmitters. Six motor-driven co-ax switches and two 7-pole manual transfer panels allow flexible control of the transmitter outputs.

Either of the two transmitters can be fed via the VSB filter and notch diplexers through the power dividing tee to the combined aerial or alternatively the notch diplexer and the tee can be by-passed, feeding the visual output to the top half of the antenna and the aural output to the lower half of the antenna.

This function is facilitated by co-ax switching. The manual transfer panels enable the main transmitter to be run up into the 10 kw dummy load whilst the standby unit is on air. In addition the combined output from either transmitter can be fed into the upper or lower half of the antenna.

The Antenna

The 16-stack dipole panel antenna has a nominal gain of 12 and is fed by 22mm styroflex from 2 power dividing and impedance matching transformers. Dual  3 1/8-inch diameter solid copper feeder is used to feed the 2 transmission line transformers. The horizontal section of the transmission line between the central technical area and the base of the tower is supported on a 110-foot braced steel truss.

Total height of the tower structure is 497 feet. Extensive use has been made of high tensile steel and the weight of the tower has been kept below 100 tons. Undercut foundations are used to engage a greater frustrum of earth and reduce the weight of concrete in the tower base. The self-supporting structure has been designed to withstand a wind velocity of 95 mph at ground level.

Outside Broadcasts

The TJ-70A television mobile unit will accommodate 4 image orthicon cameras together with the necessary accessory equipment. The 1 1/2 ton air conditioning unit keeps interior conditions within the comfort zone in spite of high ambient temperature and humidity encountered in Queensland. Adequate power for equipment and lighting is provided by a 25-KVA diesel 3-phase alternator fully enclosed in a custom-built soundproof trailer.

  • Anmerkung : In Australien ging also nichts ohne Klimaanlage, es war brütend heiß. Die ganze mobile Technik samt Klimaanlage mußte mit einem hinten angehängten 25 Kilowatt Aggregat versorgt werden.

The vision switcher in the TJ-70A is a TS-5A. Audio is handled by a BC-5A console. Dual sync generators and genlock facilities are provided by two TG-12A's.

The facilities provided by the TJ-70A remote unit are supplemented by a single camera roving remote built around a Volkswagen Kombi.

This vehicle has a self-contained power supply and is able to transmit pictures while on the move. Both units are pictured in Fig. 15.

During the last two years the station has presented 64 outside broadcasts of events such as football, basketball, hockey, boxing, wrestling, tennis, swimming, diving, water-skiing, sailing, rowing, baseball, athletics, motor-racing, horse racing, surf carnivals, parades and variety spectaculars.

Possibly the most colorful remotes have been those involving sailing in Moreton Bay and on the Brisbane River. These telecasts were carried out with the aid of a zoom equipped camera and a microwave link mounted on a launch, see Fig. 16.

The 4-foot tripod mounted parabola was fitted with a special sight to facilitate visual alignment with the shore-based unit. Under conditions of heavy swell and from shorter distances, a horn antenna was used.

Due to the undulating nature of local terrain and also because of the great distances involved in many of the telecasts, extensive use has been made of self-contained microwave link repeater stations. Such an installation is shown in Fig. 17.

eine drehbare Parabolantenne

A TF-55A rotatable mount with a 6-foot parabola is mounted at the 200-foot level of the tower, see Fig. 18. Remote controls in the master control facilitate rapid alignment on to a link bearing. All QTQ remote vehicles, including the news van, are fitted with radio telephones. The programme department has allocated a special frequency for this communication link. The base station has been situated at the 200 foot level on the tower to prevent feeder losses and to derive the maximum range from the 50 watt transmitter. An inverted ground plane dipole antenna mounted below the microwave link platform provides excellent coverage for the communication link within the Brisbane metropolitan area.

Future Expansion

The QTQ bulding has been designed to allow extensions to the north, to the east and upwards. The service area can be extended to accommodate the future Studio A, at the same time providing additional space in the technical area below. Studio A will extend to the east over the staff car parking area.

The layout of the central technical area is ideally suited to automation and from the master control room an operator has an unobstructed view to Studio C, telecine and the master control announce booth. Considerable additional space has been allocated for the ultimate addition of color which because of the stringent requirements of the Australian Broadcasting Control Board promises to be of the highest technical standard.


FIG. I. Jomes William McKay. General Manager. QTQ.

FIG. 2. Ross Thyer. Chief Engineer. QTQ.

FIG. 3. Partially completed QTQ building. Studio B can be seen in the foreground in the center of the picture. Studio A will extend over the staff car park shown in the right of the picture.

FIG. 4. The layout oi the Central Technical Area can be seen clearly in the architect's simplied basement floor plan.

FIG. 5. The ground floor plan shows the layout of the spacious Service Building. Studio B. Dressing Rooms and adjacent offices.

FIG. 6. Popular Australian television personalities. Bob Dyer and Graham Kennedy appear beiore the Studio B Cameras during the first anniversary of "BRISBANE TONIGHT".

FIG. 7. Studio B is 50 feet by 70 feet and has a winch driven flying batten grid with twenty-six lighting battens and nine scenery battens.

FIG. 8. From left to right in the Studio B control room, we see the script assistant, director, vision switcher and technical director.

FIG, 9. The control panels for TS-40 switcher and special effects system are shown in the Studio B control room. The panel above the special effects selector includes camera intercom and studio talkback facilities for the technical director.

FIG. 10. The BC-6B consolette in the Studio B audio control room is sometimes supplemented by a four channel auxiliary mixer (not shown).

FIG. 11. Studio C is 21 feel by 21 feel and is used for the presentation of News and Weather Bulletins together with simple live commercials and interview-type programmes. This Studio is equipped with a TK-21 vidicon camera used in conjunction with a zoom lens. The camera and lens have complete remote control oi pan, tilt, locus, iris and zoom. Preset lighting and the special camera facilities allow ior unattended operation in this Studio.

FIG. 12. Master Control serves a three way function as Studio C control room, transmitter control room and master control room. The RCA TS-40 switcher and BC-6B audio consolette provide flex, ble programme control facilities.
FIG. 13. QTQ-9's 497 fool lower 16 slack dipole panel antenna, fed by dual transmission lines through two power dividing and impedance changing transformers. Each half of the antenna can be energised separately.

FIG. 14. The TT-2BH standby transmitter and the TT.11AH main transmitter allow for uninterrupted programme transmission. Changeover is facilitated by coaxial switches.

FIG. 15. Mobile equipment includes: TI-70A mobile unit. 25 KVA diesel generating set. Volkswagen Kombi, fitted out as a Roving Remote. The other vehicles are the news department station wagon and engineering tender unit.

FIG. 16. A TVM-1A microwave link with 4-loot reflector and TK-31B Image Orthlcon camera with 200m lens are seen mounted on a launch during a remote telecast of the 18-Footer Sailing Championships on the Brisbane River.

FIG. 17. A microwave link repeater station installed on Eagle Heights near the famous Gold Coast area of Queensland. This repeater station was being used to facilitate the telecast of the Rosebowl Tennis Tournament at Southport.

FIG. 18. A TF-55A rotatable mount with a 6-foot reflector can be seen on the 200-foot level on the tower. The unit is remotely controlled from the master control room.

- Werbung Dezent -
Zur Startseite - © 2006 / 2024 - Deutsches Fernsehmuseum Filzbaden - Copyright by Dipl.-Ing. Gert Redlich - DSGVO - Privatsphäre - Redaktions-Telefon - zum Flohmarkt
Bitte einfach nur lächeln: Diese Seiten sind garantiert RDE / IPW zertifiziert und für Leser von 5 bis 108 Jahren freigegeben - Tag und Nacht, und kostenlos natürlich.