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  • Anmerkung : Hier steht das Wort "CLINIC" für eine Art "Untersuchung" im Farblabor, hat also mit einem Krankenhaus nichts zu tun. Es geht um den fördernden Einfluß von Farbe und Farbkombinationen in der Fernsehwerbung der amerikanischen TV-Stationen.

Since August 1956, KOMO-TV in Seattle, Washington, has been conducting color clinics for local advertising agencies and sponsors to illustrate what color television can do for specific products, and how to best present products in the new medium.

The station is equipped with a TK-26 3-V color film system, capable of handling movies, slides, opaques and small product displays; also two TK-41 live color studio cameras. Demonstrations are put on in one studio and viewed on 21-inch color TV sets by the audience in an adjoining studio via a closed-circuit arrangement. These clinics are run approximately monthly and have attracted a great deal of interest in color TV.

Die ersten Untersuchungen für Werbeagenturen

According to W. W. Warren, Executive Vice-President and General Manager of KOMO, the most frequent reaction of an agency or client is a state of shock, although products submitted in advance are used for the demonstrations.

As a result, they usually want to have a return engagement for trying films and art designs they have prepared. Greatest interest seems to be in packaging. Executives from many industries, as well as manufacturers' representatives, attend these clinics.

(The latter frequently request, as a result of the clinic, to be informed in advance of future network color programs planned by major national manufacturers so that they can tie in locally.)

According to C. E. Miller, Chief Engineer of KOMO, "One company had a real light package with lots of white in the label and an over-all highly reflective plastic surface. Our demonstration revealed that the bright lights used for color TV gave their package a washed-out look. So they redesigned and now use color farther down in the gray scale but still bright, attractive, and completely acceptable."

Either one large agency or several smaller agencies are invited to each clinic. The agencies bring most of their key personnel, including artists and copywriters. Account executives usually bring along their most important clients - those whose products are most sensitive to color. Attendance ranges from 30 to 40 - equally divided between agency and client personnel. Typical sponsors are luggage manufacturers, paint manufacturers, hotel chains, airlines and meat packers.

Es geht los, Morgens um 8 Uhr . mit einem guten Frühstück

The "clinic" begins at 8 A.M. with an informal get-acquainted breakfast in a private dining room at a nearby restaurant. At nine o'clock the audience is seated in the studio, listening to three minutes of introductory remarks about color TV. Then the program appears on the TV screen and lasts for approximately one-half hour. Afterward, the audience enters the originating studio, looks over the color equipment; examines the products, backgrounds and techniques involved in the demonstrations; asks questions and frequently arranges for future demonstrations of specific products. Within two hours the clinic is usually ended.

After the first few clinics, in order to test reactions, KOMO distributed questionnaires which agencies returned to the station and gave data for guidance in planning future clinics.

  • Anmerkung : Nochmal zum Verstäändnis : Die Werbeagenturen wollen ihren Kunden Werbefilme fürs Fernsehn und vielleicht auch noch fürs Kino verkaufen. Die Sender wollen den Kunden Sendezeit verkaufen. Also beide sitzen im selben Boot und bewerben eigentlich den Endkunuden, die Firma oder den Hersteller.


Five questions were asked:


  • 1) What was your over-all reaction?
  • 2) Can you name the most important aspect of demonstration?
  • 3) Can you name the least important aspect of demonstration?
  • 4) What are some client comments?
  • 5) Do you have any suggestions for improving clinic?


Die Ergebnisse :

Illuminating information was given in response to these questionnaires in quite some detail and was quite frank. Here are the most significant points:

Most Important

1. Relationship of product (or package) color to background.
2. Showing client's package under different conditions and viewing one's own film.
3. Problems involved in duplicating true product colors when contrasted with demonstrator's hands.
4. Limitations of contrast range.
5. Fact that problems are all capable of solution - requiring only experiment.

Least Important

1. Technical descriptions of cameras.
2. Seeing oneself on color TV . . . though interesting.
3. How the equipments work.
4. Technical transmission descriptions (could be eliminated).
5. Technical demonstration of cameras.

Client Comments

1. Could see need to work on colors prior to going into color TV advertising.
2. Display of product exceptionally interesting.
3. Impressed with opportunities; aware of problems; appreciate KOMO knowhow.
4. Felt color had been well used on demonstrated commercials; would be practical tool to use.

Suggestions for Improving Clinic

1. Take the product out of the package.
2. Demonstrate use of short film to show what it adds.
3. Show title cards and slides.
4. Introduce like a regular program.
5. Move a little faster - tighten production toward air-show standards.
6. Have a question-and-answer period.

Professional Presentation

Evidently many of the foregoing suggestions have been incorporated into the clinic format because the one witnessed on May 21, 1957, was certainly a professional presentation in every sense of the word.

From beginning to end it moved smoothly, at an attention-getting pace, with bits of entertainment and product demonstrations interspersed between the heavy stuff. Two 21-inch color-TV sets were used with a black-and-white 17-inch monitor between them to show the contrast.

Bill Hubbach, KOMO Sales Manager, addressed the group in the viewing studios for a few minutes before the program went on. He mentioned that the 21-inch color sets before the audience were the same type one would have in his home - that it was only necessary to plug in and connect the antenna to get a color picture.

  • Anmerkung : Das war schlicht gelogen. Denn in den Wohnungen und Häuseren und Farmen der Amerikaner standen - wenn überhaupt - NTSC Farbgeräte und die waren weder geeicht noch langzeit-farbstabil. Im Gegenteil - die Farbe änderte sich laufend je nach athmosphärischer Störung. Und die Entfernungen zum Sender waren durchaus 100 Meilen über Berge und Täler.

Next, he gave a few statistics on set sales and color promotion in the area. (Color set sales have increased 50% since KOMO began actively promoting color.)

"Advertisers will want it because of impact," he said. "Within two years the race will be on. Now is the time to prepare."

Typical Format

The program began in black and white but switched to color within a few seconds. Thereby, portraying at the outset the vividness of color versus black and white. Then followed a series of shots showing several attractive subjects including girls and flowers. Immediately thereafter, the announcer introduced one of the station engineers and a short dialogue and demonstration ensued.

Technical talk was limited to mention of the three primary colors used for color TV: the compatible system; the color camera with its three tubes and the color receiver with its three-gun picture tube.

Lighting was introduced with the comment that like color photography, more light is required than for black and white. A demonstration followed, showing that by control of quality and placement of lights the same color setting in the studio could be used to depict a day or an evening scene, without color confusion.

Contrast range was dealt with next using a large white card about 30 by 40 inches. As the video operator adjusted for the white, the audience could see the flesh tones fall. This lead to a short discussion of what to avoid in order to keep within the contrast range.

Next, an aluminum cooker with its highly reflective surface was the subject of demonstration. Means of killing the extreme highlights were given. Capabilities of the color TV system were shown by using a lithographed point-of-sale piece supplied by the cooker manufacturer. It reproduced beautifully together with the product - on close up. Illustrations could be clearly seen, sales points could be read, and the product was attractive.

At this point, a bit of diversion was provided by a fast cut to a model adjusting her stocking. This led to dialogue between announcer and model then finally to a display of various colored textile fabrics by the model. Directly after this a dancer entertained for a few minutes, thereby showing different color sets and costumes.

Product Demonstrations

After the dancer, KOMO Art Director Bob Dinsmore appeared on camera, wealing a painter's cap (which advertised and was supplier! by an agency account), busily stirring a bucket of white paint. He stopped, picked up a small tube, squeezed some of its color contents (client's product) into the bucket and began stirring again. As he did the white paint began to change color.

This provided the art director an opportunity to talk about adapting from black and white to color. He spoke briefly on contrast factor, black-and-white ratio, in-between tones. How the middle tones are more pleasing. The importance of avoiding great masses of black or white - except for occasional dramatic effect.

Continuing then with paint as one of the product displays of the day, a typical point-of-sale display, as found in a paint dealer's store, was brought on camera. This was a counter rack containing several hundred small swatches of different colors. The camera closed down on the display. Hands were used to pick out individual swatches so they could be demonstrated large size and in actual color.

Background Demonstration

A can of salmon with attractive three-color label occupied the stage for this next demonstration. Different solid color backgrounds were tested to show the importance of picking a color that compliments rather than detracts from the product package.

It was shown that one can "read" a color into an object by merely a change of background. This psychophysical phenomenon was demonstrated using a can with label that contained red, dark blue, and while bands in its design. The can was shown against black, pink, blue, yellow and red backgrounds. Blue proved highly complimentary. Yellow was too competitive, it was higher in intensity than the package (can). Red led to bleeding of the red in the label.

Color Film and Slides

Switching from live color to the 3-V film system, the announcer explained that 3-V means one vidicon for each of the three primary colors employed for color TV. Typical slides of commercial spots in color were projected.

There followed a showing of colored film. A typical color news film of the type used in KOMO's daily "Deadline" program was also projected. This provided an opportunity for saying something about the fast processing for color film, developed by KOMO, which makes it possible to shoot and show on the same day.

The program (demonstration) portion of the clinic ended with a short interchange between announcer and a TV industry journalist on the subject of color TV across the nation. (Visitors to the areas are frequently incorporated in the clinic programs to add variety and validity.)

Audience Reaction

After the formal program, agency men and their clients streamed into the originating studio for a look at color TV cameras and, especially, at product demonstrations.

There were numerous questions about backgrounds and package design. Arrangements were made for future showings of products and films for experimental purposes.

William M. Burke, President of the agency bearing his name, requested a photograph of clients before the color camera. Messrs. Allan Kurtzman and Ted Rich, President and General Manager, respectively, of James Henry Packing Company posed beside the TK-41.

They wanted this picture for their industry magazine, THE NATIONAL PROVISIONER. Food products, they thought, would be a natural for color TV advertising - especially after seeing one of their packaged hams unwrapped and the appetizingly natural color of the product displayed close up.

Ralph E. Malone and Win. L. Bishop, President and General Manager, respectively, of Westside Ford, Inc., wanted to pose before one of the color sets with the Japanese dancer from the International Trade Fair.

This Kodachrome transparency, they said, would be used by the
FORD TIMES, since automobile manufacturers are already large users of color TV advertising. Local tie-in would be the next logical step.

Hal Wenzler, Account Executive, brought his client for a picture of product demonstration. "It's (color TV) a natural for our product," remarked Russ Miller, Sales Manager of Preservative Paint Company.

He and Don Bechtel, Store Manager, posed with Hal at the paint-stirring demonstration, then again at the dealer-counter display. "We serve Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Hawaii, and have been in business for 50 years. Color TV would be wonderful advertising for our nine company-owned stores and 65 dealers."

Die Reaktionen auf die Vorführungen :

Reactions like these prove the value of KOMO color clinics. Its generating a lot of interest and good will. Here are some testimonials extracted from agency letters:

Agency No. 1
"The KOMO TV Color Clinic was a refreshing experience. I thought your people handled it extremely well. The breakfast was good and we got over to the station promptly to find that the color presentation was fabulously interesting. Something over twenty of our staff was involved, as well as quite a few clients, and I think probably the strongest thing 1 could say with respect to my feeling on the worthiness of this presentation would be simply to admit that the 30 or 40 hours of overhead involved was very well worth while."

Agency No. 2
"Thanks very much for the wonderful production job you guys did at the color clinic. Also, many thanks for promoting our apples around the station. I really appreciated the information gleaned from the meeting, and hope we can have another one in the near future."

Agency No. 3
"On behalf of our company and all our clients and friends who attended - I want to thank you sincerely for arranging for the color clinic. It was very enlightening. I had many mentions afterward of the value that this was going to prove. Everybody had a good word for the clear way in which KOMO explained the handling of live color, color films and slides."

Agency No. 4
"I have delayed writing this letter primarily to receive the reaction of our clients as well as those of our staff to the color clinic conducted by your organization in our behalf. We are happy to report that each and every one of those in attendance expressed nothing but praise for the amount of knowledge and background they received relative to their future plans in packaging and presentation. We would like to thank you and your staff for the opportunity of attending this clinic as well as for the fine co-operation that each and everyone of your people extended to us. Co-operation such as this between agency, client and media cannot help but build more effective relations."

There have been specific cases of advertisers who were helped in preparation for color TV. One company, for example, had planned to put out new labels but changed its mind after viewing the result on the KOMO color clinic demonstration. They redesigned the new label so that film commercials in color have better impact.

Many sponsors see the reasons for testing packages and products before embarking upon new designs. They become aware of the general advertising pattern and know where to come for advice in preparation for color TV advertising.

Color Chronology


In August, 1954, KOMO made the first colorcast in the area originating on the NBC network. This was a production for the Defense Department from Fort Meade, Maryland.

On May 21, 1955, began the first regular programming of color using
the 3-V film system. And in September 55, of the same year, KOMO put into operation a "Color Stripe Generator" (Farbbalkengenerator) so that area TV servicemen could adjust color TV sets at any time of the program day.

January, 1956, the first RCA TK-41 color TV studio camera was received and on February 1, KOMO presented the first locally produced live show in color to the Pacific Northwest.

Washington's Governor, Arthur B. Langlie, hailed the arrival of color TV as "another step forward in Washington State's broadcast industry that is growing apace with the Northwest itself." A few days later, KOMO announced a new fast processing (90 minutes) of color film, which permits same day use for news program.

July of 1956

KOMO conversion to an all-color station on the local level took another step forward in July of 1956, when its second TK-41 color TV camera went into operation. Color clinics for local agencies and sponsors were inaugurated the following month and have since been held regularly (approximately monthly) in KOMO studios to illustrate what color can do for specific products, and how best to present these products on color TV.

end of 1956

Near the end of 1956, in co-operation with SK&F laboratories and the local medical society, KOMO put on the air what it believed to be the world's first live colorcast of a surgical operation (see BROADCAST NEWS, Vol. No. 95, June, 1957).

At the beginning of 1957 over 80 hours of color programming were on the air monthly including live, film and network. This year a new facility is being added: opaque pickup and lens extension equipment for the TK-26 3-V color film system. In effect, this provides a third live-color camera suitable for large slides, opaques and small product display.

Color Programming of KOMO-TV

There are three daily shows, Monday through Friday, in color.

"Window" is a five-minute presentation at 2 P.M., sponsored by a local department store. Typical store products such as furniture, clothing, and fabrics are displayed in live action. "Captain Puget" is a half-hour live Monday-through Friday colorcast for youngsters from 5 to 5:30 P.M. "Deadline" is a 15-minute news show from 5:30 to 5:45 P.M.

It's sponsored by a major oil company and won a national award for "best local news program." From 5:45 to 6:00 P.M. "Dateline" takes over. This 15-minute color show includes national news and the weather.

In addition to these daily color shows, "Color Fair" a full hour show is put on approximately monthly. In format it's a "little spectacular" and, like the network show, of high quality.

Subjects include: "Carnival in Color," "Flight Through Space," "Gaslight Follies," "The Upper Room," "Speak Easily," and "Spring Song."

On Saturdays, a popular half-hour show for children, "Quizdown" is frequently-done in color. Fourth and fifth grades compete in teams on subjects they study; history, spelling, geography, etc. "Colorama" is an hour or a half-hour color film program presented on both Saturdays and Sundays.

Viele Farbprogramme kommen aus dem "Network"


  • Anmerkung : In USA gab es bereits drei große landesweite Broadcast Networks, vor dem 2. Weltkrieg nur Radio, später dan TV. Das hat nichts mit unseren Computer Netzen zu tun. CBS, ABC NBC waren diese Großen, die natürlich möglichst viele kleine Stationen mit News und Shows beliefern wollten, gegen lukratives Entgelt natürlich.

Special color programs are received live from the network plus the daily "Matinee Theatre" (11 A.M. to 12 Noon PST). Other network color programs are delayed via lenticular film.


FIG. 1. Guests of KOMOTV view Color Clinic presentation in studio. Two RCA 21-inch color TV sets are used. Between them is a 17-inch black and white monitor employed for contrast.

FIG. 2. Color Clinic evokes intense concentration. Agency men and sponsors alike display keen interest in the presentation. It's produced like a regular program, using on*air standards.

FIG. 3. Dramatic color burst opens Color Clinic.

FIG. 4. Use of model relieves any tendency to monotony.

FIG. 5. Art Director, Bob Dinsmore, demonstrates typical product pitch.

FrG. 6. From leit to right: Hal Wenzler, Account Executive. Burke Advertising Agency, examines product demonstration with clients Russ Miller and Don Bechtel, Sales Manager, respectively, oi Preservative Paint Company.

FIG. 7. "Color TV would be a natural ior our product." according to Russ Miller (center). "Color TV would be wonderiul advertising ior our company-owned paint stores as well as our dealers."

FIG. 8. Engineer Ralph Mifflin and Production Manager Al Stewart discuss lighting and contrast.

FIG. 9. This demonstration shows that products require proper background color.

FIG. 10. Yellow background produces too much "competition" for this package.

FIG. 11. After session in receiving studio, agency men and clients gather in originating studio for a look at color TV equipment.

FIG. 12. Many clients want their picture taken alongside the color cameras for publicity use in their industry magazines.

FIG. 13. Mieko Hamano. Japanese model from Tokyo, poses with R. E. Malone and W. L. Bishop of Westslde Ford. Inc.

FIG. 14. Left to right: William M. Burke. President of ad agency bearing his name and clients Allan Kurtzman and Ted Rich. President and General Manager, respectively, of James Henry Packing Co.

FIG. I5. Group of agency men and advertisers together with KOMO-TV production men arrange for future private demonstration of products on color TV.

FIG. 16. TV film equipment includes three com. plete chains. Shown here is the TK-26 3-V Color Film Camera with TP-15 Multiplexer. TP-3 35mm Slide Projector and TP-16 Film Projector.

FIG. 17. This is control position of 3-V Color Film System. Note cabinet at left, used lor filing of all currently operational 35mm slides. The push-button switch at lower right controls the input to the TM-10B Color Monitor. This monitor can be switched to either incoming Network, Line out to transmitter. Studio B-C, or the 3-V Color Film Camera,

FIG. 18. The kitchen set used on "Cookbook Quiz occupies one end of Studio C. Set contains two complete kitchens, one using electric utilities and one using gas utilities so that either or both may be featured as desired. This is an example of a set originally designed for monochrome television. It is planned to re-do the kitchen using colored utilities with pleasing combinations of color and color patterns on cabinets and tables so as to produce a good color picture, yet one with sufficient contrast to produce a good mono chrome picture as well.

FIG. 19. Studio B-C control room with T.D. Fred Fowlef at the black-and-white camera controls and Director Ed Lackner at the studio switcher. AH black and white live camera equipment at the studios (a total of four chains), is of the field type, thereby, allowing it to be transported into the field for use on remotes as necessary.

FIG. 20. Audio Operator Barbara McKenna at the controls of the audio console in Studio B-C control room.

FIG. 21. KOMO-TV master control console. On the left Section 1 contains a TK-21A vidicon film camera control. Section 2 a TK-20D iconoscope slide camera chain; Sections 3 and 4 are projector remote controls and an RCA TC-4 audio/video switcher (shown in more detail in Figure 22). Section 5 contains a T5-10 switcher and line out master monitor; Section 6 a preview monitor, the input controlled by a 12-position, push-button switch located on the sloping section of the console desk. The last section contains stab, amp controls and projector controls for the RCA TP-16 and TP-3 projectors used on the 3 V System.

FIG. 22. This is a close-up of Sections 3 and 4 of the master console. In Section 3 at the left the top unit is a projector remote control panel for two model 250 film projectors multiplexed into a TK-21A vidicon camera. The next unit is an intercom and signalling unit comprising a 5 station push-to-talk intercom, and flasher, signal lights and controls to the master control announce booth adjoining the master control room. The third unit contains remote positioning and changeover controls for two Selectroslide 35mm slide protectors. These projectors and a Baloptican 4 by 5 inch projector are multiplexed into a TK-20D iconoscope camera. The bottom unit of the panel holds polarity reversing controls for the film cameras and remote sound focus controls and indicators for either front or back emulsion film in the projectors. The sloping section shows the ring and talk key controls for eight incoming order wire telephone lines.
Section 4, also shown in close-up here is a standard TC-4 audio/video switcher modified for a fifth input to the audio mixer. This input is the output of the master control announce booth where an auxiliary mixer console accommodates turntables and announce microphone.

FIG. 23. A portion of master control as seen through the window of the announce booth, with engineers Ed Boyd, (obscured), and Jack Kerr-Immediately to the left but out of the picture, are slide and film camera and projectors.

FIG. 24. Studio G control room showing audio control and a view out into the audience area.

FIG. 25. The KOMO-TV transmitter building approximately one mile from the studio site atop 450 ft. Queen Anne Hill in Seattle. The tower mounts a 6-bay supertumstile antenna with 100 KW ERP on Channel 4 at an over-all height of 1,000 feel AMSL, and an auxiliary 1-bay antenna at a lower elevation on the tower. Transmitting equipment includes the main 25-KW TT-25BL and an auxiliary 2 KW transmitter. Either of these transmitters can feed either the 1-bay or the 6-bay antenna.

FIG. 26. Through these hands ... to Arden Skoog, film editor and her librarian and assistant, Sheila Lind and Art Pattison, tails the task of editing and preparing the thousands of feet of film necessary to a television station.

FIG. 27. TV News prepares to meet "Deadline." A state of ordered confusion prevails as editors Robinson and Jackson ready copy for the evening news color program.

FIG. 28. News Cameramen Ramaley and Sierer return from an assignment. Station wagon used by News Department has been fitted with mobile telephone, a receiver and converter for police broadcasts (note portable movie light).

FIG. 29. Giant 110-inch sports lens in use at annual hydroplane race on Lake Chelan. This gives viewers a close-up of all action. At a distance of one mile this lens can close down on a man in the cockpit of the boat.

FIG. 30. Designed and built by Howard Moses, of the KOMO-TV Engineering Staff, the 110-inch lens is constructed of a 12-inch diameter Fiberglas lube, 7 feet long. At the rear end is mounted an aluminized front surface parabolic mirror. This was ground from a 2-inch Pyrex blank, 10 inches in diameter. It brings light rays to a focus at a point 110 inches from its surface. In the forward part of the tube is a diagonal mirror. It reflects the light rays through a series of front surface mirrors, contained in a light-tight housing between lens and TV camera, lo one port in the turret. The image is formed at the photo-cathode of ths image orthicon camera tube. Lens and mirror construction are highly accurate, there is minimum light loss and color aberration. An 80 inch lens can also be accommodated in the same tube in place of the 110-inch lens. A smaller tube is used to accommodate a 50-inch lens. The tube is held in place by a Duralumin framework that fastens to the TV camera. The tubes are painted white to prevent thermal air currents from rising inside, which would cause optical aberrations. Each tube is complete in its own special packing case as shown. The mirrors and light chambers are carried in separate cases. These lenses are used with black-and-white cameras only.

FIG. 31. TV raincoat constructed for camera. Made of a lightweight, waterproof cloth material, it provides ample air circulation and protection from inclement weather on outside remotes, yet is easily and quickly removed.

FIG. 32, Typical scenes taken from various live "Color Fair" shows featuring Pacific Northeast talent.

FIG. 33. Featuring Pat Spier, this is a Monday through Friday color program sponsored by a local department store.

FIG, 34. Featuring Bruce Caldwell, a 15 minute daily color program that includes national news and the weather.

FIG. 35. Features Associate News Editor Keith Jackson and News Editor Herb Robinson. This award winning local news program is a 15 minute color presentation from 5:30 to 5:45 P.M.

FIG. 36. TK-41 color camera control room console consisting of monitors and control equipment for two live color cameras. This room also contains an equipment rack housing the two colorplexerfl associated with the cameras. Windows opening out into Studio B at the right.

FIG. 37. Various experimental backgrounds testing the uses of basic materials and design techniques. Used as mood or design backgrounds for musical numbers on "Spotlight," a half hour musical variety show.



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